Metformin and the extended-release version, metformin ER, are generic drugs sold under brands such as Glucophage and Fortamet. Pada studi-studi klinis, resistensi insulin dan diabetes tipe 2 terbukti meningkatkan kejadian sindrom frailty pada usila. Elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function; contraindicated in patients with renal impairment, carefully monitor renal function in the elderly and use with caution as age increases Not for use in patients 80 years unless normal renal function established Initial and maintenance dosing of metformin should be conservative in patients with advanced age due to the potential for decreased renal function in this population Controlled clinical studies of metformin did not include sufficient numbers of elderly patients to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients Asthenia Diarrhea Flatulence Weakness Myalgia Upper respiratory tract infection Hypoglycemia GI complaints Lactic acidosis (rare) Low serum vitamin B-12 Nausea/vomiting Chest discomfort Chills Dizziness Abdominal distention Constipation Heartburn Dyspepsia 5 mmol/L), decreased blood p H, electrolyte disturbances with an increased anion gap, and an increased lactate/pyruvate ratio; when metformin is implicated as the cause of lactic acidosis, metformin plasma concentrations 5 mcg/m L are generally found Patients with CHF requiring pharmacologic management, in particular those with unstable or acute CHF who are at risk for hypoperfusion and hypoxemia, are at an increased risk for lactic acidosis; the risk for lactic acidosis increases with the degree of renal dysfunction and the patient’s age Do not start in patients aged 80 years or older unless Cr Cl demonstrates that renal function is not reduced, because these patients are more susceptible to developing lactic acidosis; metformin should be promptly withheld in the presence of any condition associated with hypoxemia, dehydration, or sepsis Should generally be avoided in patients with clinical or laboratory evidence of hepatic disease; patients should be cautioned against excessive alcohol intake, either acute or chronic, during metformin therapy because alcohol potentiates the effects of metformin on lactate metabolism Discontinue metformin at the time of or before an iodinated contrast imaging procedure in patients with an e GFR between 30-60 m L/minute/1.73 m²; in patients with a history of liver disease, alcoholism, or heart failure; or in patients who will be administered intra-arterial iodinate contrast The onset of lactic acidosis often is subtle and accompanied by nonspecific symptoms (eg, malaise, myalgias, respiratory distress, increasing somnolence, nonspecific abdominal distress); with marked acidosis, hypothermia, hypotension, and resistant bradyarrhythmias may occur; patients should be instructed regarding recognition of these symptoms and told to notify their physician immediately if the symptoms occur; metformin should be withdrawn until the situation is clarified; serum electrolytes, ketones, blood glucose, and, if indicated, blood p H, lactate levels, and even blood metformin levels may be useful Once a patient is stabilized on any dose level of metformin, GI symptoms, which are common during initiation of therapy, are unlikely to be drug related; later occurrences of GI symptoms could be due to lactic acidosis or other serious disease Lactic acidosis should be suspected in any diabetic patient with metabolic acidosis who is lacking evidence of ketoacidosis (ketonuria and ketonemia); lactic acidosis is a medical emergency that must be treated in a hospital setting; in a patient with lactic acidosis who is taking metformin, the drug should be discontinued immediately and general supportive care measures promptly instituted; metformin is hy dialyzable (clearance up to 170 m L/min under good hemodynamic conditions); prompt hemodialysis is recommended to correct the acidosis and to remove the accumulated metformin; such management often results in prompt reversal of symptoms and recovery Use with caution in patients with congestive heart failure, fever, trauma, surgery, the elderly, renal impairment, or hepatic impairment Instruct patients to avoid heavy alcohol use Suspend therapy prior to any type of surgery Rare, but serious, lactic acidosis can occur due to accumulation Possible increased risk of CV mortality May cause ovulation in anovulatory and premenopausal PCOS patients May be necessary to discontinue therapy with metformin and administer insulin if patient is exposed to stress (fever, trauma, infection) Ethanol may potentiate metformin’s effect on lactate metabolism May impair vitamin B12 or calcium intake/absorption; monitor B12 serum concentrations periodiy with long-term therapy Not indicated for use in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus that are insulin dependent due to lack of efficacy Withhold in patients with dehydration and/or prerenal azotemia The above information is provided for general informational and educational purposes only.
Metformin and elderly
[Latar belakang Diabetes tipe 2 ditandai dengan resistensi dan defisiensi insulin, selain itu seiring dengan penuaan kejadian resistensi insulin juga semakin meningkat. Over-65 diabetics represent about half of the patients visiting general practitioners.
Metformin may rarely cause a serious and sometimes fatal condition ed lactic acidosis.
Metformin and elderly
Metformin and elderly
Description: Metformin is an oral buanide antidiabeticagent similar to phenformin, a drug that was withdrawn from US marketing in1977 due to the development of lactic acidosis. In contrast to the failure of most pharmacological therapies, numerous nutritional approaches show real promise in slowing the development and progression of NAFLD.
; orinally sold as Glucophage) is an oral antidiabetic drug in the buanide class. BUY CHEAP DISCOUNTED SOMA
Metformin and elderly:
Rating: 100 / 100
Overall: 93 Rates